March 31, 2010

My first love with Entrepreneurship

Posted in Business, General tagged , , , at 11:51 am by asprakash

It is not so pain. But ofcourse, pain is the pain. Here I would like to share my thoughts and feelings about the term “Entrepreneurship” and obviously how is my entrepreneurship life is going on.

What is Entrepreneurship

Well, I am not going to explain about it here. Please refer this nice wikipage here. But from my point of view apart from the business and money, the entrepreneurship is one who creates the future for others. In detail, he/she creates good career & job opportunity for people belongs to him, he/she creates economic growth for a country, technology promotions,.etc.

My entrepreneurship life

My star-up is I have just less than 6 months experience in my entrepreneurship life.  But I already invested around 2 years of my time to my start-up company. There were so many +ve and -ve suggestions got from my well wishers/friends/parents/ when I planed to start-up my own company. My friends advised me to join a MNC and earn money first and then start-up a company. My parents much worried about my horoscope(?)! and so many etc etc suggestions. Ofcourse, few of them encouraged me to go ahead. Some of the over confidence suggestions are, “If you cant, then who will”… ;).

I have my own dreams; my own ambitions and targets. Now planing to achieve my target and take my steps one by one confidently and carefully. Till now, many steps already taken and those steps finished in failure. The terms “failure” is not an word to hate in our life. But it must be observed by everybody; Know our failures and correct it later. So that a person can able to achieve an target. Nobody in this world directly  jump to the target in a single step/try. Step by step progress is always safer and provides more experience to avoid failure in future.

Somebody said, now I am a Business man. Business and Entrepreneurship differs from some other way. A independent person can do business and earn money. For example, running a shop, hotel,.etc. However, Entrepreneur is also doing business. But he creates career for others and he is used to invest the earning money into new business opportunity and so on.

If you are working in Infosys, Micrsoft, CTS, TCS,.etc and earning few laks per annum, do you think when your company founded, it was started from a big Tidel park in a central heart city? Do you think, your company CEO, early met your clients traveling by flight? Do you think, when your company founded, the employee’s strenght was around 10,000? Do you think, when your company founded, all the employees got nice salary like you?. There are so many good MNC companies (HCL, Infosys,.etc)started from an single room and they used bike to met their clients.

I am also in the same position to preparing the strong foundation and providing best career opportunity for my employees in future.

There are around 2998 engineering colleges are available in India and ~5 laks  fresh engineers (I did not calculated other degree holders. If so, then the numbers will be more per year!)are come-out every year. Practically, It is not possible to provide the job opportunity for all the engineers by those CTC,TCS,Infosys,.etc companies. And if everybody wants to work with a company, then who will create the job opportunity?. As my favorite  Dr.Abdul Kalam said, “Indian engineers wants to create the job opportunity instead of like to work with someone”. Due to lack of support for new entrepreneurs, from friends, home, relations, Governments and Government policies  I am not sure, when it will happened and how it will happened.

Output of Entrepreneurship

Once I started my own company, many of my well wishers now expected some output from me. I am not sure, what they are mean by “Output”. They are thinking like, once we started our own company, then we can immediately earn Crores & Crores. It is so funny!. If this is true and easy, then why the people are want to join with a company and why they should not start-up their own?. And few others thinking like, once we open a company ( like shop?), then we can start earning money automatically. Obviously, running a enterprise is not like an shop/store and earn 2 times of money at evening when we invested some money at morning. We need to put more efforts, hardwork and most important one is patient. Finally the endurance. I guess, it will take to earn money by an start-up company minimum upto first 6 months and based on the services/products.

As per my concern, running a enterprise at this economic down situation, we need to put infinite hardwork, patient, endurance, time, confidence and obviously money. There is no use of starting a company with missing of any one from the above.

My entrepreneurship experience and suggestions for young entrepreneurs

  • Rest :: Now a days my sleeping time is less than 6 hours. I guess, it will decreased more in future. But maintain your sleeping hours atleast 6.
  • Time & Friends :: Not possible to spend time for chat with friends, movies, outing, roaming,.etc. Need to avoid these activities. If you feel, you cant ignore anybody, then talk with your friends and explain about it. They will understand you.
  • Time & Girl friends :: One of the main reason, why the guys are wasting their time is, girl friends!. You must keep it in mind that, your time is so valuable. Do not waste much time with girl friends through by Phone, Chat, roaming,.etc. WARNING!. You are very near to the door, “Failure”.
  • Depression :: You will get more depression these days. Bcoz most people will reject you : customers, investors, employees you try to hire, organizers of startup showcases. You have to keep looking for the ones who will accept you.
  • Failure :: Dont bother about the failure and dont afraid. Learn the failure and accept the failure. If you failed 20 times; 50 times; 100 times. Try again & again. One day “failure” will get bored and run away!.
  • Time & Relatives:: Do not waste much time to visit your relatives home, relatives functions,.etc. Convey your regards over by phone. Any important functions, you may consider. It may helpful for you to refresh yourself.
  • Bankers :: You will be rejected to get an Credit card, account from an Bank,.etc. Dont worry. They will comeback to you surely, later.
  • Advise :: You will get more advise from your relatives to search a good job and earn money. So that you will get a good alliance. Do not consider this kind of advice. Once you succeeded, then they will tell you, “Yes, I know on the first day itself, you will become a millionaire”.
  • Employee’s risk :: Retaining employees is an crucial task. Its upto you, how you are going to handle. You may consider like, offering employee benefits, bonds, salary hike,.etc.
  • No Holidays! :: You dont want any holidays these days. Either work from your room/home or from office. Having a USB data card will help you to work with internet at any time from any where.
  • Quick response :: You must provide proper response to your customers and every one of your customer is highest priority to you.
  • Finally, absorb all your pain; learn it; try it again and again. Success is very near to you.

Last but not least, Do not forgot that, you are not going to build your career; But you are also going to build  the entire career for thousands of your future employees. I wish you all the best. Here I would like to share a poet.

தெய்வத்தால் ஆகாதெனினும் முயற்சி தன்
மெய்வருத்த கூலி தரும்.

Meaning of the above poet :: Suppose the god cant help you in certain case; But your hardwork will help you to get the credits.


July 23, 2009

Technopreneurship Promotion Programme (TePP) & Technology Business Incubators (TBI)

Posted in Business tagged , , , , , , , at 8:22 am by asprakash

I hope every body having its own dream. When I was entered into my engineering degree, I was dreaming about innovations, technologies in different areas, invention in many applications,.etc. But it was dismantled when I come to know about the industries [especially IT industries].

Think about the current situation in this recession period. Every degree holder is now like to work in IT field. But you are not interested to join as a costliest labour (?) (IT Employee) and you would like to do some inventions in your own core filed, How? (or) You have already prepared a very good unique novel product idea. But none of the ventures/companies ready to invest on your idea. Then how can you develop the prototype of your idea? Suppose, You dont have any inventions in your mind and you tired of thinking about the novel idea, job search and then finally come-up with your business plan to start-up your company, atlast. But you are from middle class family or not possible to invest huge amount at this stage. Then how you will execute your business plan or your product idea? Who will fund for you?.

Oh. Stop it. Enough to ask questions. What I want to do now?.

Ok. Surely I will tell you. Before that few words. Readers those who are already working in a company and only interested to earn money, than please close this page and do continue if you have any other work. The following paras are not for you. Rest of others please proceed.

TePP (Technopreneur Promotion Programme)

The Dept.of Scientific & Industrial Research [], through a public advertisement, has invited applications from budding entrepreneurs or innovators to seek funding from the government for converting their ideas into working prototypes/models. Called the Technopreneur Promotion Programme (TePP), this is for promoting individual innovators to become technology entrepreneurs (technopreneur).

The eligibility criteria for the programme are quite simple and uncomplicated. Any individual with an original idea/innovation, say- an engineer, scientist, farmer, artisan or even a housewife or a student can apply. Even companies can apply, provided their turnover does not exceed Rs. 10 lacs. The only requirement is that, the idea must have a commercial implication; it cannot be just for research or patenting purposes. The maximum amount of the sponsorship is 90% of the project cost or Rs 10 lacs, whichever is lower.

Industrial or scientific innovations in India are far more in need of funding than software startups; there is no dearth of funding for software entrepreneurs from VCs, seed funds, banks etc. Govt. programmes like STPI have mechanisms to nurture and incubate software startups. Besides, the IT industry anyway has a powerful godfather in NASSCOM, which has started influencing government policy quite significantly.The same is not true for industrial or scientific segments. A recent edition of the Business World has a lead story on how, some of the giants of Indian manufacturing like Larsen & Toubro are facing substantial exodus of their best manpower to the IT/software industry.

Procedure to apply for TePP

TePP categories

Tepp categorized different schemes with different formats for the people.

For example, if you are a student, then the category is different and the fund amount also varied. And if you are a independent person planing to start-up your own company, then you need to apply for separate category. I have given the available TePP categories below,

  1. Phase I – Micro Technopreneur – for students – Eligible upto 75,000/-. To know more about this phase, click here. The application form available in the same page.

  2. Phase I- Technopreneur project fund – For staffs and employees, start-up companies & independent persons – Eligible upto 15laks – Innovators should invest 10% of total project cost. To know more about this phase, click here. The application form available in the same page.

  3. Phase II – Seamless scale-up fund – Successful completion of students from phase-1. They are eligible to get more fund to start-up their company. To know more about this phase, click here. The application form available in the same page.

  4. Phase II – Supplementary fund – Successful completion innovators from Phase I Technopreneurs. They will provide upto 45laks this time. To know more about this phase, click here. The application form available in the same page.

Proposal preparation

You need more patient to prepare the proposal. Its not like just prepare a 5 pages of documentation. You need to prepare the following documentations to enclose along with your proposal. Its compulsory.

  • Signed copy of application
  • Proof of residence
  • Literature survey & patent search results
  • Targeted Product specification/ process performance
  • A one page description of potential user, why would he/she buy this new product and how would the innovator access the user
  • Documentary proof of prior work ( video, photo, test report, TUC site report, press coverage etc)
  • Cost justification
  • Bar chart with mile stones for project schedule and
  • Technology Angels evaluation form

There is no standard format for the above documentations. But search some sample templates from google and prepare the documentations.

Where to apply

Well, its time to apply your proposal. Where & How?.

Very simple. But before that I would like to introduce about one more new term for you. That is Technology Business Incubators (TBI). TBI will take care of your TePP applications. DSIR tied-up with most TBIs available in India and they will help you how to prepare TePP proposals and get fund from DSIR. So first I will provide more info about the TBI and then continue the TePP processes.

TBI (Technology Business Incubators)

Technology Business incubator (TBI) is an entity, which helps technology start-up businesses with, all the necessary resources / support that the start-up needs to evolve and grow as a mature business. Typically, TBIs provide incubatees, the start-up businesses supported by incubator, with necessary infrastructure support, technology/ prototype development support, research assistance, help in getting funding, business consulting assistance and do whatever is necessary to make the start-up a success.

Our government selected some institutions in every state and setup this TBI with different kind of resources based on the available facilities in that college/universities . For example, we have the following TBIs available in Tamilnadu. Note : All the states are having TBIs.

  • Anna University, Chennai for biotechnology field
  • VIT, Vellore for IT, Biotechnology and Mechanical
  • Kongu, Erode for Embedded systems and Electronics
  • PSG Tech, Coimbatore for IT
  • University of Madras, Chennai
  • IIT-Madras, Chennai.
  • Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Coimbatore
  • Periyar Technology Business Incubators, Thanjavour –  for Biotechnologies

Fortunately, Tamilnadu has more TBIs. To know the list of available TBIs in other states click here.

So go through the above list. Then select the TBI which is near and suitable for you. Then immediately meet the Manager of that TBI. Discuss about your plan with him. He will provide you what are the facilities he have and what he can do for you. Please note that, even you dont like to apply for TBI but still you can approach TBI to get the TePP fund from DSIR. First they will ask you  to send your draft copy of all your documentations. They will get back to you if you have any corrections in your documentations. Later you need to take the hard copy of all your documents and submit it to them (to TBI). The process will take minimum 3 months to call for an review meeting for your proposal. You need to take an presentation in-front of the DSIR committee and its your responsibility to convince them to get funded. There is no final date to submit your proposal. You can take your own time. Prepare carefully and then submit. ITS OPEN FOR ALL 365 DAYS.

Why TBI?

Because, you need space to setup your working place, need resources like machines [CNC, Lathe, biotech,.etc], hardwares, components, computers, internet,.etc to implement your prototype, need technical guidance and non-technical help like Market survey, business analysis, Ventures to invest money on your prototype,.etc. The room rent in Metro cities like Chennai & Mumbai are huge cost. So its better to utilize the TBI’s space for very low cost and you can stay with them upto 3 years. After you successfully applied for TePP fund, then approach the same TBI to get resources for you. You no need to give any share for them.

Hey,! Are you a women entrepreneur? Oh…you are so lucky yaar!. Do not ignore the next section.

Facilities/benefits for women entrepreneurs

There are lots of extra benefits available for women entrepreneurs rather than the men entrepreneurs. For example, you got the loan from government through by the above schemes and suppose your business went in loss. Then you no need to return the full amount to them. There are some percentage of exceptions are available for womens. BUT THIS SCHEME IS NOT AVAILABLE FOR MEN ENTREPRENEUR. In Tamilnadu, Periyar Technology Business Incubators, Thanjavour encouraged women entrepreneurs and they provide first preference to them. So, Women entrepreneurs, try to utilize the available resources and create more job opportunities for womens and as well as mens. Till now I did not get any documented proof for this scheme. I discussed with some TBIs and I come to knew about it. Leave your comments if you have any links, reference,.etc.

What I can do for you?

I am also applying for this TePP through VIT TBI. The manager of VIT TBI, Mr.Balachandran provided more info reg the TePP and TBI and What are the things to be done before we start a company. Now I am preparing the draft copy of my TePP proposal and it is in the final stage. I will submit my final copy of the TePP proposal soon. I dont have any experience in getting fund from TePP project. But I can surely help you, how to prepare a proposal, other necessary documents, howto approach TBI,..etc. You can reach me by asprakash83_at_gmail_dot_com (or) you can leave your comments.

Quick reference to apply for TePP Project fund

  • Think about a unique novel innovation commercial product idea
  • Prepare the proposal and necessary documents for your idea
  • Select any one of TBI and approach them to apply for TePP fund
  • Apply for TePP
  • Meanwhile prepare a business plan for your company and apply for TBI to get working place
  • Implement your idea and create the prototype of your invention.
  • Approach Venture Capitalizer to invest money on your idea to make business.
  • Leave from TBI and create a own working place for you. Be a employer… 🙂

Useful links

June 19, 2009

How to create an STAND ALONE RTAI system.

Posted in Embedded Linux, Embedded System, Linux, Open Source, Real Time Linux, RTAI, RTLinux tagged , , , , , , , at 4:19 am by asprakash

Preparing a stand alone RTAI system is an nightmare for RTLinux beginners and little bit difficult job for intermediate people. Objective of this Howto is to reduce your time to prepare stand alone RTAI system successfully. The steps was taken from the documentation RTAI-TARGET-HOWTO.txt prepared by Giampiero Campa.

About RTAI

RTAI – the RealTime Application Interface for Linux – which lets you write applications with strict timing constraints for your favorite operating system. The Real-Time Application Interface is a hard real-time extension to the Linux kernel, contributed in accordance with the Free Software guidelines. It provides the features of an industrial-grade RTOS, seamlessly accessible from the powerful and sophisticated GNU/Linux environment.

To know more about RTAI, please visit

Install RTAI

Its very easy to install RTAI in your host Linux. I used Ubuntu 8.04 Linux to install RTAI 3.7 version. Refer the document RTAI-TARGET-HOWTO.pdf to install RTAI in Ubuntu.

STEP 1 – Configure and compile a reduced version of your Kernel

This step assumed that, you already downloaded the kernel; Downloaded the RTAI; Unzip the files; And apply the RTAI patch to Linux kernel. Please be ensure that, you have already done the steps from STEP:1 to STEP:4 in the file RTAI-TARGET-HOWTO.TXT.

Now we are again compile the kernel. Coz we need to customize more specific for our target board. The first thing to do is to compile the kernel that fits the target system, as far as processor type, bus and peripherals are concerned.

As root:

$ cd /usr/src/linux

$ make xconfig (or menuconfig or config)

If you want a reduced version of the kernel, e.g. size less than 600K, you have to disable virtually everything except the loadable module support, the IPIPE option, the ISA bus, and the IDE, floppy, ext2, and /proc support. Also, at this point, if you are really working with a floppy disk, and you need an unattended reboot, you should manually edit the file /usr/src/linux/init/do_mounts.c, search for the “press ENTER” string and, a few lines below, change the instruction sys_read(fd, &c, 1); with the instruction sys_read(fd, &c, 0);

Once you have done the above, you have to compile the kernel:

$ make clean

$ make

copy the configuration file for future reference :

$ cp -f .config config-linux.txt

STEP 2 – Recompile RTAI for the new kernel

RTAI needs to be recompiled to take into account both the newer

kernel and possible different settings of the target machine,

so, as root:

$ cd /usr/src/rtai

$ make xconfig (or menuconfig or config)

$ make clean

$ make

$ make install

and copy the configuration file for future reference :

$ cp -f .rtai_config config-rtai.txt

It is a good idea at this point to recompile the code

from the simulink schemes that need to run on the target machine.

STEP 3 – Download, unpack and install Busybox

Go to and get version 1.01,

version 1.1.13 is ok but is slightly different

however later version do not compile statically with gcc,

so it’s better to avoid them and just get the 1.01 version.

As root, download the busybox-x.xx.tar.bz2 file into /usr/src

ans unpack it using the following commands :

$ cd /usr/src

$ tar -xjvf busybox-x.xx.tar.bz2

Set a symbolic link for later use:

$ rm -f busybox

$ ln -fs busybox-x.xx busybox

then, configure and install busybox:

$ cd /usr/src/busybox

$ make config (or make menuconfig)

In the Build Options, select “Build Busybox as a static binary”.

Be sure to include at least the init, insmod, rmmod, and mount,

in general, select to only what you need, if unsure,

use the default option.

In version 1.1.13 be sure to set the PREFIX option equal to /mnt/f.

After the configuration, as root:

$ make dep

$ make busybox

finally, save the config file for future reference:

$ cp -f .config config-busybox.txt

STEP 4 – Download, unpack and install LILO

Its time to insert your DOM in your HOST PC. Switch-off your PC. I assume that you are running your host Linux from SATA hard disk. So atleast you should have one IDE port is free now. Now Insert the DOM in your free IDE port.


Its upto your wish to use. I am not comfortable with LILO. So I used GRUB. But here I have given the steps for both LILO & GRUB. So please install either GRUB or LILO boot loader.

GRUB installation

You can use grub-install command to install GRUB on your DOM from your Ubuntu Linux.

# mke2fs /dev/sda

# mount -t ext2 /dev/sda /mnt

# grub-install –root-directory=/mnt sda

# umount /mnt

If you installed GRUB, then skip the next step, LILO installation. If you dont like GRUB and wish to install install LILO, then continue.

LILO installation

Go to and look for the latest version of the bin86 assembler and loader, (i used 0.16.17).

As root, download the bin86-x.xx.xx.tar.gz file into /usr/src ans unpack it using the following commands

$ cd /usr/src $ tar -zxvf bin86-x.xx.xx.tar.gz

Then compile the bin86 assembler:

$ cd /usr/src/bin86-x.xx.xx $ mkdir /usr/local/man/man1 $ make && make install

If everything goes fine, then it’s time to download LILO: go to and look for the newest stable version of the lilo, (i use version 22.7.1).

As root, download the lilo-xx.x.x.src.tar.gz file into /usr/src ans unpack it using the following commands :

$ cd /usr/src $ tar -zxvf lilo-xx.x.x.src.tar.gz

Set a symbolic link for later use:

$ rm -f lilo $ ln -fs lilo-xx.x.x lilo

then, build lilo (you don’t have to install it on the system as a boot loader, you just need to have the /usr/src/lilo/lilo binary)

$ make install

STEP 5 – Prepare DOM

In what follows, it is assumed that you want to create a stand alone RTAI system on a DOM. This is rarely useful, since you can’t normally include anything else other than the bare essential, however, if you learn how to squeeze Linux on a DOM then you can later put it wherever you want, using exactly the same procedure with just a few changes. For example if the destination is a floppy mounted as /dev/fd0 you can replace the /dev/sda string with /dev/fd0 in the following instructions. unmount the DOM :

$ umount /dev/sda

$ sync

zero out the content of the DOM block by block:

$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=1MB count=128

create an ext2 file system on the DOM:

$ /sbin/mke2fs -F -m 0 /dev/sda

create a temporary folder if it does not exist, and remove everything if it exists

$ mkdir -p /mnt/f

$ rm -drf /mnt/f/*

mount the DOM on /mnt/f :

$ mount -t ext2 /dev/sda /mnt/f

$ sync

STEP 6 – Populate the root

Again as root, create the classic unix directories :

$ cd /mnt/f

$ mkdir boot

$ mkdir initrd

$ mkdir dev

$ mkdir proc

$ mkdir etc

$ mkdir sbin

$ mkdir bin

$ mkdir lib

$ mkdir mnt

$ mkdir usr

$ mkdir tmp

$ mkdir lib/modules

$ mkdir -p var/{log,run}

$ touch var/run/utmp

$ sync

STEP 7 – Populate /dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/hda dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/hda[0-3] dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/hdb dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/hdb[0-3] dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/sda dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/sda[0-3] dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/sdb dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/sdb[0-3] dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/tty[0-6] dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/ttyS[0-6] dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/ram[0-6] dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/console dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/zero dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/null dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/kmem dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/mem dev

$ mkdir dev/rtf

$ cp -dpR /dev/rtf/[0-9] dev/rtf

$ cp -dpR /dev/rtf[0-9] dev

$ cp -dpR /dev/rtai_shm dev

$ sync

If you are creating a bootable flashcard that is seen as, say, /dev/sdc on the development system and it will be seen as, say, /dev/hda on the target system, make sure that both /dev/sdc and /dev/hda are copied to the /mnt/f/dev folder. If necessary you need to copy these device files from other system, but they have to be there otherwise step 10 will fail.

STEP 8 – Create the configuration files and populate /etc

I suggest that you create the folder /usr/etc/f to store the configuration files for your system.

There are 2 very important configuration files that the system needs to find during the boot process, that is /etc/fstab and /etc/init.d/rcS :


This is the file that tells the filesystems to mount and where they are located, usually just a few lines are required:

/dev/sda / ext2 defaults 1 1 none /proc proc defaults 0 0

If the kernel does not support the /proc filesystem then just the first line is necessary.


This file (rcS stands for Run Commands Shell) contains command to be executed by the shell as soon as it starts. here is an example:


/bin/mount -av


insmod /lib/modules/rtai_hal.ko

insmod /lib/modules/rtai_lxrt.ko

insmod /lib/modules/rtai_fifos.ko

insmod /lib/modules/rtai_sem.ko

insmod /lib/modules/rtai_mbx.ko

insmod /lib/modules/rtai_msg.ko sync

# insert your calls here, e.g: # /tmp/test -v -f 10

# shut down the system



This part is only needed for those who are using LILO. If you are using GRUB, please skip this lilo.conf section.

The lilo configuration file it is not needed during the boot process but it is needed later to properly write the DOM boot sector:

Here is an example of lilo.conf file for a stand alone system with both kernel and file system on the same DOM :

boot =/dev/sda

map =/boot/map

timeout =00


backup =/dev/null

compact image =/boot/bzImage

label =RTFLASH

root =/dev/sda

initrd =/boot/initrd.img-2.6.24

It is a good idea to also store the configuration files:

$ cp -f /usr/src/linux/.config /usr/etc/f/config-linux.txt

$ cp -f /usr/src/linux/.config /usr/etc/f/config-rtai.txt

$ cp -f /usr/src/busybox/.config /usr/etc/f/config-busybox.txt

At this point we can move the files into the mnt/f/etc folder:

$ cd /mnt/f $ cp /usr/etc/f/* etc

It is always better to make sure that rc is executable:

$ chmod -R 777 etc/* $ sync

Finally, if you modified the code of either the linux kernel or busybox, it is a good idea to include it here in this folder.

STEP 9 – Populate /bin /sbin and /usr using busybox

As root, do the following :

$ cd /usr/src/busybox

$ make PREFIX=/mnt/f install

$ sync

STEP 10 – Create RAM DISK, Copy the kernel and make the disk bootable

On Ubuntu, you have to create the initial ram disk with the command:

$ update-initramfs -ck x.x.xx

where x.x.xx is the directory under /lib/modules that contains the modules for the new kernel.

$ cp /usr/src/linux/arch/x86/boot/bzImage /mnt/f/boot/bzImage

$ cp /boot/initrd.img-2.6.24 /mnt/f/boot/

$ cp -dpR /boot/ /mnt/f/boot/

$ sync

If you are using GRUB, then follow GRUB user’s and skip LILO user’s section.

GRUB user’s

Now you have to edit the /mnt/f/boot/grub/menu.lst, comment the “hiddenmenu” option, set the timeout to something like 10 seconds, and physically insert the lines relative to the new kernel, resulting in something like this:


root (hd0,0)

kernel /boot/bzImage ro root=/dev/sda initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.24

LILO user’s

$ /usr/src/lilo/lilo -v -C /etc/lilo.conf -r /mnt/f

$ sync

STEP 11 – Copy rtai related stuff

I hope you have more space left in your DOM. Its better to copy the RTAI and Linux related stuffs from your host to DOM. It is good, if you will copy the necessary file, libraries, modules from /lib folder from your host Linux.

I copied all the files available in the folder /lib from my host to /mnt/f/. So the size was ~100MB. After I confirmed that my DOM booted successfully, then I removed the unwanted libraries, modules from the folder /mnt/f/lib/.

Or If you are really working with a standard floppy disk then at this point there will probably be only about 100K left on your floppy disk so, there will be no space left to copy any modules or executables, except maybe for a few ones, so, in that case you can skip this step.

All the rtai modules and the executables that need to run on the target system, have to be compiled for the target system, therefore make sure that rtai has been compiled and installed using the same linux .config file that was used to compile the kernel for the target processor in step 1.


$ cd /mnt/f $ cp /usr/realtime/modules/rtai_hal.ko lib/modules

$ cp /usr/realtime/modules/rtai_lxrt.ko lib/modules

$ cp /usr/realtime/modules/rtai_fifos.ko lib/modules

$ cp /usr/realtime/modules/rtai_sem.ko lib/modules

$ cp /usr/realtime/modules/rtai_mbx.ko lib/modules

$ cp /usr/realtime/modules/rtai_msg.ko lib/modules

$ sync

Also, allow the tmp directory to be accessible, if you want to copy some file over there.

chmod -R 777 /mnt/flash/tmp

At this point, you should recompile the executables that need to run on the target system, and copy them on the tmp directory along with any other needed file.

STEP 12 – Check size, unmount and reboot

$ df -h /dev/sda

$ sync

$ sync

$ umount /dev/sda

If you want to test your DOM from your host, then set your bios that, you are booting from DOM first instead of your SATA hard disk.

Or You can directly test the DOM from target board. now take your device, insert it into the target system, reboot and cross your fingers really hard 🙂

If you have any issues, you can reach me by asprakash83 at gmail dot com More steps are taken from the document “RTAI-TARGET-HOWTO.txt” prepared by Giampiero Campa. You can reach him by campa at cemr dot wvu dot edu Download the pdf version of this file from here.

I will upload my stand alone RTAI & update the link soon. Check this page frequently.

August 23, 2008

Debian project preferred BioPuppy Linux for Bioinformatics

Posted in Uncategorized tagged , , , , at 8:30 am by asprakash

Last May 15th I released the BioPuppy Linux OS beta version for public. There are lots of interested people include students, staffs, research scholars, Linux enthusiasts and others from various Universities and companies from all over the world downloading BioPuppy and there are trying utilize the features of BioPuppy now. I am sure BioPuppy have a very good futures in open source world and I hope I can provide a better OS for biology through BioPuppy.

Good News for BioPuppy

BioPuppy Linux is now encouraged by one of the Debian project called Debian-Med. The Debian-Med project presents packages that are associated with medicine, pre-clinical research, and life science. Its developments are mostly focused on three areas for the moment: medical practice, imaging and bioinformatics.

Debian-Med project now preferred BioPuppy to add all the debian Bioinformatics packages into BioPuppy Linux. For more details about Debian-Med project,

This is one of the great achievement to the BioPuppy Linux contributors and for my work. I am really happy about it and I feel this is a kind of recognition to my work from the world. Coz I did not get any recognition from my native area. I am not going to bother about it. I hope I will continue with the same intention and will provide better contribution. The whole credit goes to Puppy Linux. Special thanks to Mr.Barry Kauler encouraged me in this project and supporting all the community members.

Now, I am looking contributors for biopuppy Linux project from bioinformatics area. Those who are interested to contribute for BioPuppy project, please contact me in off line. BioPuppy link is,
My old thread about BioPuppy,

Prakash. A S,

Team BioPuppy.

May 14, 2008

New born BioPuppy Linux beta version released!

Posted in bioinormatics, General, Linux, Open Source tagged , , , , , at 3:36 pm by asprakash

I gladly inform you that, our first version of BioPuppy Linux is out, now. You can download it from

What is BioPuppy Linux

BioPuppy is an electronic workbench for bio-informatics and computational biology. It has been designed to meet the needs of beginners. BioPuppy is available as a live CD cum installation CD [and in USB Pen drive] and containing all the required software to boot the computer with ready to use bio-informatics tools. BioPuppy is based of the Puppy Linux. The another objective of this BioPuppy is small in size. Our estimated size of BioPuppy is ~150MB.

More about BioPuppy

BioPuppy contains all the tools available in the basic puppy linux and bioinformatics tools. It provides both standard and cutting edge bioinformatics software tools on a Linux base. It is powerful, configurable and easy to maintain. It has been customized for ease of use and provides an ideal system for scientists handling and analyzing biological data. The Biopuppy is a light weight version of bio OS. Bioinformatics-related customizations include a large number of bioinformatics programs and programming libraries, the addition of graphical menus for much of the bioinformatics software, and links from the desktop to key documentation and applications. The system also includes a comprehensive, categorized and searchable documentation system for bioinformatics software.

Features of BioPuppy

* More user friendly and easy to use for those new to Linux.

* Contains all the necessary Bioinformatics tools. Check the Biology tools already included in BioPuppy.

* BioPuppy will boot from a minimum PC/Laptop with 586Mhz CPU and 32Mb RAM

* Easy to install in Hard disk, USB Pen drive and Compact Flash (CF) cards. No fear on installation for those new to Linux.

* Very small in size (~180MB). But it has everything.

* BioPuppy can run your operating system, programs and store your data on the same CD-RW/Pen drive/Hard disk

* BioPuppy contains extensive help files for ALL its programs and Bioinformatcis tools with screen shot.

* Can easily update new version.

* Bring all your programs, tools, moves, songs with light weight BioPuppy Linux in a single USB Pen drive.

Biology softwares included

Sequence Analysis Tools :: Sim-4, Tigr-Glimmer 2, Genewise, Muscle, Sigma, HMMER, Clustal-W and mafft

Structure Prediction Tools :: mfold, gibbs

Protein Structure Analysis Tools :: Garlic,Rasmol

Phylogenetic Analysis tools :: Fast DNA, Phylip, Phylodraw

Protein Modeling :: Modeller

Docking :: MGL Tools (Autodock tools, Python Molecular Viewer (PMV), Vision)

System Biology :: Copasi

On-line tools :: BLAST,EMBOSS

For more please visit

Your contributions are almost welcome!…

Some screen shots

May 8, 2008

How developers/companies are earning money from Open Source environment?

Posted in Entrepreneurship, General, Open Source tagged , , at 4:05 am by asprakash

A Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) need not a free of cost. We can earn money in some ways from Open Source softwares by directly and indirectly.

* Hope you know, we dont have any official supports for Open Source softwares. Take a OS s/w; Sale it with free of cost for your customer. When they want support, you just charge some money.
* One important drawback in OS is, no ready made development environment and taking more time duration for setting up a environment. if you will do every thing in a single package, then you can earn more money from OS. For example, still we dont have any ready made working environment for embedded linux. We have to install more tools and need to configure lot of things. Its an nightmare for developers. If you possible to collect all the tools, configure it and ready for sale, you can earn more money, I m sure.
* You can also earn money by teaching OS tools and softwares, like provide training.
* You can also earn money by providing installation setup/supports for an company/organizations. CDAC is d example in this case. They are doing this business for all the government org from BOSS linux.
* My-sql is an open source DB. Recently, Mr.Brain [Owner of mq-sql]sale his OS project MY-AQL to another company for some millions. But it took around 6 years for earn this money from his open source project.
* Sale a OS operating system CD/DVD is an good business and more…

Why the companies are starting a OS software

You may ask this question, definitely. Now we can see why a company/developer start an OS project.
* You will get more contributions from community. So that your product will be stable soon.
* Get more contribution from community. You no need to recruit more people for this project.
* Google encourage more OS activities like Google SOC and this is the best example company for earning more money from OS by directly and indirectly.
* Intel have a big OS community. So that they are getting contributions for writing drivers for their processors. They have lots of other OS projects too,
* NOKIA, have a OS community. Initially they started with couple of OS projects. Now they have more than 25 projects in a short period. Through this OS activity, they are getting more contributions for their application development and others. visit
* {After NOVELL earned more bad issues from communities, once tied with Microsoft} Now AMD supports OpenSUSE project,
* nVidia have a OS community and they are getting more contributions for writing drivers for their devices.
* There are lots of companies are having OS activities. Coz, they are getting credits indirectly, compare with what they are earning money by directly.

* For more details about Open Source business plan refer this link,

May 7, 2008

Howto get a embedded system job and what i want to do for that.

Posted in Embedded System, General tagged , , , at 10:20 am by asprakash

I think recently I am getting more queries related this topic.
I would like to share my suggestions with all the freshers in embedded system. We have already discussed about it. But still the freshers are not getting any clear idea about, howto get a job in embedded system. Hope this thread will helpful for them to understand first, what the industries are expecting from them. I request you to post all your comments here, if you have any. Please also note that, the given points are only my personal suggestion; There is no intention to force you to take any decision based on my inputs.

Dont do/think

* Entry for freshers in embedded system is really easy…
* I will get a job immediately, coz I have an embedded system certification from the great -ABC- institution.
* I have fully fitted for embedded system field. Coz I have completed all the modules including, C,C++,Unix, Device drivers, Micro controllers and RTOS. Oh….I am great. What do you want more…. 😀
* If I cant get any job in this field, then I can just put an 1+ yr fake experience and apply for job. The recruiter will accept my CV. Then I will get a job easily. Oh…I am really so brilliant…. 😀
* If I add one or two projects [especially some rtos projects like vxworks ]in my resume then i can easily get an job.
* I have 80% marks in all the certificates. The interviewer will accept me for this embedded system field.
* I have done a embedded system project in a big MNC embedded systems company. So i am eligible for getting a job.

Then What I want to do/Think?

* Whatever it may be, You should learn from in-depth. For hardware engineers, learn from flipflop, micro processor….etc. For software engineers, learn from compilers, linkers, OS concepts….etc.
* Do some real time projects from what you have learnt. For example, you have 6 modules in a course, try to do minimum one project for each module by your own and the project should be related with industries use or from latest technologies.
* Try to utilize your lab facilities. Especially your lab hardwares. Hack it, whatever you want. Or how much you are ready to spend for fun. Try to buy one cheap embedded development board. You can surely learn a lot from it.
* Learn the Linux OS for embedded system. Coz it has good future in embedded system and in India. Moreover,  Linux is exactly suitable for embedded system field rather than the M$ windows. Another reason is, you can hack the linux from top to bottom. Bcoz its open source and no need to depending on any proprietary softwares. So that you can learn more and get more real time experience.
* Plan to buy a hardware board like ARM 7/9/11/Cortex (if you are planing to learn OS level embedded systems) or Microcontroller boards like Arduino. You can get the hardware from Rs.2000/- to Rs.10,000 based on the configuration. Using this boards, you can feel the real time experience for porting, cross compilation, linux, emb linux, rtlinux and other rtos. If you got will these experience, you can surely cross the technical interview.
* You should sharp your language skills like C,C++,Java….etc. Language is very important for s/w embedded system engineers.
* Try to contribute to some international forums, mailing lists and magazines like, So that you can update your knowledge in this field and really understand whats happening in the current embedded field on industries side.
* Try to contribute some embedded system open source projects already available in internet. Go through the site, and search for embedded system project. you will get thousands of project related embedded system. Definitely, you will get nice experience on this field. Beagleboard, Pandaboard, Arduino,.etc are some of the widely used embedded open source boards.

What are the available chances for getting a job in this field

(1) Select an embedded system company in your college placements. Avoid the s/w companies like CTS, Infosys…etc, if you have a confident to get a job in embedded field/company.
(2) If you dont have the placements, send your resumes for selected embedded system companies, even you are an fresher. Insist your full of interest in embedded system along with an covering letter. DO NOT SEND YOUR CV AS AN JUNG/SPAM OR “CC” TO ALL THE COMPANIES. ITS AN BAD ATTITUDE.
(3) After 6 months you got finished your degree, you may join with some embedded system course. During this 6 months, you can try for freshers job. You may get some placements through your training institute. But this is not guarantee. Its depends the institution and your capability. Howevr, the course is not necessary for embedded system, if you have capable to learn by your own with full of self confident. My personal opinion is, I wont suggest you to do a course. Coz, in India most of the institutions are not teaching good in embedded systems. They are only targeting on you money. Or cross check the institutions capability and their facilities before you are going to join with them.
(4) If you have done some good projects followed by the “what to do” steps, you have more chance to get a job in this field.
(5) If your intention is only for getting a job in this field, then dont look big MNC companies & big salary. You have lots of small embedded companies are there. For entry level, small companies are best to learn a lot in this field rather than the big companes. so your first preference should be small/startup companies.
(6) Suppose you cant get a job in this field after one year, now you can put 1+ yr fake experience with reasonable projects. I did not suggest this idea in previous topic. But here I am suggesting you; Bcoz some time it will work. But its not guarantee and more risky. At the same time, you should have all capability to manage the technical stuffs equivalent to 1+ yr experience person. Interviewer can easily identify you; But he/she may prefer you, due to some reasons. First one is, you have the capability to manage the technical stuff without exp. Second, they are forced to recruit a person for emergency and ready to give an chance for you. Better, go to or; search an embedded systems project which is suitable for you; If possible participate in that project, voluntarily. Or atleast download the source code; learn everything first and then put this project in your CV.
(7) Last but not least, keep on trying ,even you failed in many interviews.

I wish you all the best for your best career in Embedded Systems…. 🙂

Solution for “/bin/sh: Can’t access tty; job control turned off” error

Posted in General tagged , , at 9:50 am by asprakash

Recently, we tried to boot our customized Puppy live linux from pen drive in our Intel 201GLY Mini-ITX board. But we gor the error:: /bin/sh: Can’t access tty; job control turned off
For the last one month we cant solved this problem. Now we solved this problem .
The solution is, just boot the kernel with the option, “acpi=off”.
The following steps will provide you more details,

  1. Boot your computer so that GRUB is displayed.
  2. Press the “e” key to go into edit mode.
  3. Presso” to add a new line to the script.
  4. Type the following: acpi=off irqpoll
  5. Press the Escape key.

In the event that acpi=off doesn’t work try replacing the entry above with one of the following:

  • acpi=force irqpoll
  • nacpitimer irqpoll

Hope this info helpful for the people those who are seeking the solution for this problem.

Howto create Bootable USB Pendrive for Puppy Linux

Posted in General tagged , at 9:48 am by asprakash

How to create an bootable Puppy Linux for USB Pen drive:
I tried this step for my IGB Transcend USB pen drive. Hope it will work in other brands also.
Download puppy-3.00-seamonkey.iso from
Here the bolded words are commands.
login as a super user in your host linux
Insert your pendrive.

Mount d pen drive:
#mkdir /mnt/usb
#mount -t vfat /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usb/
If you want any backup of your pendrive, take a copy from it.

# Now type fdisk -l to list available drives/partitions (note which device is your flash drive Example: /dev/sdb). Replace all instances of x with your flash drive letter. For example, if your flash drive is sdb, replace x with b.
# Type umount /dev/sdx1
# Type fdisk /dev/sdx

* type p to show the existing partition and d to delete it
* type p again to show any remaining partitions (if partitions exist, repeat the previous step)
* type n to make a new partition
* type p for primary partition
o type 1 to make this the first partition
o hit enter to use the default 1st cylinder
o type +750M to set the partition size
o type a to make this partition active
o type 1 to select partition 1
o type t to change the partition filesystem
o type 6 to select the fat16 file system
* type n to make another new partition
* type p for primary partition
o type 2 to make this the second partition
o hit enter to use the default cylinder
o hit enter again to use the default last cylinder
o type w to write the new partition table

# Type umount /dev/sdx1 to unmount the partition
# Type mkfs.vfat -F 16 -n usb /dev/sdx1 to format the first partition

“Alternately you can try mkfs.vfat -F 32 -n usb /dev/sdx1 (doesn’t always work)”

# Type umount /dev/sdx2 to ensure the partition is unmounted
# Type mkfs.ext2 -b 4096 -L casper-rw /dev/sdx2 to format the second partition
# Remove and Re-insert your flash drive
# Back at the terminal, type sudo apt-get install syslinux mtools [if you are using debian/ubuntu]
# Or you can install with yum install syslinux mtools [if you are using fedora]
# Type syslinux -sf /dev/sdx1

Copy the iso files in local directory:

#mkdir puppy_temp
#mkdir puppy_usb
#mount -o loop puppy-3.00-seamonkey.iso puppy_temp
#cp -a puppy_temp/* puppy_usb

Note:: From this step, we have copied the content of the iso image into a new you can work on it. If you try to copy this data directly to the USB memory stick, it will not boot because we need to fix the position and the naming of the files. With the consolde opened, enter the following commands.

Boot file modification:

#cd puppy_usb/
#mv isolinux.bin syslinux.bin
#mv isolinux.cfg syslinux.cfg
cd ..

Now mount the pendrive again and copy the puppy_usb directory files to your pen drive.
#mount -t vfat /dev/sdx1 /mnt/usb/
#cp -a puppy_usb/* /mnt/usb/
#umount /dev/sdx1

Make it bootable:

#syslinux /dev/sdx
Note:Ensured that you have installed syslinux. If you will get the error “command not find”. Then you need to instal syslinux
Now reboot your computer, leaving the pen drive inserted; Modify the BIOS boot device and let the system ot to Puppy on the memory stick.

Hints for BIOS setting:

Reboot ur computer and press F2 for enter into BIOS setting. F2 may be varied in your pc. check the pc when it boot.
Once you entered the BIOS setting, come to “Boot sequence” option. Select the USB-HDD or USB-ZIP and move it for boot first. Means, set the highest priority.Now save it and reboot.
Play with Puppy!…

How to configure Your Cell phone in Linux OS for Internet connection

Posted in General tagged , at 9:45 am by asprakash

I tried this steps in Ubuntu OS from My Sony Ericsson K510i. I am using Airtel Subscriber.
Hope it will work in other Linux distros also.

Step 1:
Start your pc and now enter id root and password (you must be knowing that!) Now open terminal and type “dmesg” It will detect all the device connected with your pc including your (usb, serial ) data cable.and it will display log in the same terminal read that log carefully now check which port has been detected by it. It detected ttyUSB1 on my pc.

$wvdialconf /etc/wvdial.conf
it will detect ur mobile and it will write the value on wvdial.conf file in etc directory.


Now open the file /etc/wvdial.conf from your terminal,
$vi /etc/wvdial.conf
In that file, you can show a existing configuration. You just remove all the lines and paste the following code.

#Paste the following lines to your wvdial.conf file
[Dialer Defaults]
Modem = /dev/ttyUSB1 #note1
Init1 = ATZ
Init2 = ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 &C1 &D2 +FCLASS=0
stupid mode = 1
Modem Type = Analog Modem
Phone = *99# #Note2
ISDN = 0
Username = a
Password = b
Baud = 115200

#Note1: May be varied depends upon your hardware config.
#Note2: First check your mobile phone dial No.

Step 3

Open the file, /etc/resolv.conf and enter following lines. Now dont delete the existing lines. You just append.

service named start

Now log out and log in as User and open terminal now type su – and press enter, than type root password for your super user mode.
Then type wvdial R in your terminal
Hope now you are connected to Internet now enjoy surfing . If u want to disconnect than just press CTRL + C or killall pppd
And it will disconnect active connection!.

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